Schizophrenia, cannabis use, and alcohol abuse are just several disorders that are related to accelerated brain aging
Date: August 21, 2018
Source: IOS Press
In the largest known brain imaging study, scientists evaluated 62,454 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scans of more than 30,000 individuals from 9 months old to 105 years of age to investigate factors that accelerate brain aging.
A comparative study of axis I antecedents before age 18 of unipolar depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Despite a large scientific literature on early clinical precursors of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression, few data are available on axis I disorders preceding the adult onset of these illnesses.
SAMPLING AND METHODS:
Disorders before the age of 18 years were retrospectively assessed with a structured interview in 3 groups of consecutive adult inpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 197), major depressive disorder (n = 287) and bipolar disorder (n = 132). Only patients with adult onset of schizophrenia and of mania/hypomania were included. A sample of the general population served as control group (n = 300).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
The clinical groups significantly outnumbered the control sample on the majority of early axis I diagnoses. Schizophrenia was significantly associated (1) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD inattentive subtype, ADHD hyperactive subtype and primary nocturnal enuresis, compared to unipolar depression, and (2) with social phobia and ADHD inattentive subtype, compared to bipolar disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder was significantly associated with bipolar disorder, compared to the other clinical and control groups. The ADHD hyperactive subtype predicted the adult onset of bipolar disorder compared to unipolar depression. Externalizing disorders seem of special importance as regards the clinical pathways toward schizophrenia.
Source & Read More: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders.
AIMS:To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups.
First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84-2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71-2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings.
These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.
Source & Read More: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Association between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in childhood and schizophrenia later in adulthood.
To estimate the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood among children and adolescents with ADHD compared to the background population.
SUBJECTS/MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Two hundred and eight youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of schizophrenia were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of schizophrenia for cases with ADHD, compared to the normal population, was calculated as risk ratios. Hazard ratios (HR's) by Cox regression were calculated in the predictor analyses.
Mean age for ADHD cases at follow-up was 31.1years. Schizophrenia diagnoses were given to 3.8% of these cases. Compared to the general population, RR of schizophrenia in cases with ADHD was 4.3 (95% CI 1.9-8.57).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
This prospective follow-up study found children with ADHD to be at higher risk of later schizophrenia than controls. If replicated, these results warrant increased focus on the possible emergence symptoms of schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis during clinical follow-up of patients with ADHD.
Source & Read more: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 100 Schizophrenia Patients to 48 Patients with Major Depression
In this retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms were to identify a surrogate biomarker for the Dopamine D2 receptors in the brain by comparing patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia taking Atypical Antipsychotics to Depressive patients medicated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. To achieve this, thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in sLORETA. Three-dimensional statistical non-paramentric maps (SnPM) for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were then computed. Our results illustrated that the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus (t=2.049, p=0.007), along the dopamine mesolimbic pathway, had higher neuronal oscillations in the delta frequency band in the 100 Schizophrenia patients as compared to the 32-depressive female patients. The comparisons with both the 48 depressive patient cohort or the sixteen male depressive patient cohort did not yield any statistically significant findings. We conclude that the Superior Frontal Gyrus should be investigated as a possible surrogate biomarker for preclinical and clinical drug discovery in neuropharmacology.
Keywords: Dopamine Receptors, Schizophrenia, sLORETA, Mesolimbic