Schizophrenia, cannabis use, and alcohol abuse are just several disorders that are related to accelerated brain aging
Date: August 21, 2018
Source: IOS Press
In the largest known brain imaging study, scientists evaluated 62,454 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scans of more than 30,000 individuals from 9 months old to 105 years of age to investigate factors that accelerate brain aging.
Growing evidence links autism spectrum disorders and the cerebellum.
A new study led by Samuel Wang, professor of molecular biology at Princeton University, suggests that abnormalities of the cerebellum are correlated with some of the sensory difficulties seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until now, sensory integration difficulties have been reported in autism, but their underlying brain-circuit mechanisms have remained enigmatic.
Due to increased societal pressures and performance requirements, many kids are classified with ADHD, because these kids fall outside acceptable behavioural boundaries within the schooling system. Natural remedies to support more relaxed and calm behaviour does not always work and creates a situation where the energy that is not used builds up causing a jittery attention distracted child. Unfortunately this behaviour is not acceptable in a school setting causing classroom distraction and attention problems relating to poor academic performance.
Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders.
AIMS:To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups.
First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84-2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71-2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings.
These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.
Source & Read More: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Association between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in childhood and schizophrenia later in adulthood.
To estimate the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood among children and adolescents with ADHD compared to the background population.
SUBJECTS/MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Two hundred and eight youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of schizophrenia were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of schizophrenia for cases with ADHD, compared to the normal population, was calculated as risk ratios. Hazard ratios (HR's) by Cox regression were calculated in the predictor analyses.
Mean age for ADHD cases at follow-up was 31.1years. Schizophrenia diagnoses were given to 3.8% of these cases. Compared to the general population, RR of schizophrenia in cases with ADHD was 4.3 (95% CI 1.9-8.57).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
This prospective follow-up study found children with ADHD to be at higher risk of later schizophrenia than controls. If replicated, these results warrant increased focus on the possible emergence symptoms of schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis during clinical follow-up of patients with ADHD.
Source & Read more: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
This report provides practical information regarding the use of EEG biofeedback ("neurofeedback") for a variety of uses. It will survey some ofthe major issues, approaches and methods that are currently in use, and describe their overall benefits and limitations. This should help the user or practitioner to evaluate and select neurofeedback instruments, and to put them to use for the needs at hand.
Authors: Martijn Arns, Ilse Feddema and J. Leon Kenemans
Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.