According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V (DSM-V), six of the following symptoms must be present to warrant a diagnosis of ADHD, Primarily Inattentive Type:
EEG (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY) ABNORMALITIES IN ADHD/ADD
Numerous studies and research papers are done on this topic. Some of the pertinent ones are as below:
THETA / BETA (T/B) RATIO
Normal Theta / Beta ratios are:
In different studies up to 86% of children diagnosed with ADHD using traditional criteria had a T:B ratio higher than 3 : 1
Neural oscillations in resting state EEG in ADHD children - A preliminary study
Findings: Increased relative delta activity suggests cortical under-arousal and decreased theta may be related to cognitive impairment in ADHD children. Elevated gamma activity in ADHD children denotes their enhanced level of neuronal excitation with unspecific activation of processing resources. A distinct neural pattern distinguishes the ADHD group from the HP (Healthy Participants).
HP (Healthy Participants)
The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency
Findings: The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/ beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies.
Brain functional connectivity abnormalities in attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder
Findings: While the TD (Typically Developing) and ADHD groups exhibited similar prefrontal FC increases prior to the appearance of the target in the reference task, these groups demonstrated significant FC (Functional Connectivity) differences in the interval preceding the appearance of the target in the CPT A‐X task. Specifically, the ADHD group exhibited robust prefrontal and parieto‐frontal FC increases that were not apparent in the TD group. The FC (Functional Connectivity) differences observed in the ADHD group are discussed in the context of inadequate suppression of cortical networks that may interfere with task performance.
TD (Typically Developing)
ADHD/ ADD THERAPY
Ritalin is most often used drug. It is a central nervous system stimulant.
More common: Loss of appetite, nervousness, trouble sleeping.
Less common: Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, stomach pain.
This has led to alternative methods of treatment for ADHD/ADD. Extensive research by psychologists and neurofeedback specialists have been conducted in recent years and is still energetically pursued. Mostly they focus on increasing the beneficial brain wave frequencies and simultaneously decrease the non-beneficial frequencies.
NFB is a very popular method used in combination with Ritalin to decrease the drug side-effects or used alone in children not responding the pharmacological therapy. Typically, NFB sessions are conducted 2-3 times a week for a total of 40-50 sessions. Each session lasts 30-45 minutes. Although this seems like a lengthy procedure, but the results are more long-lasting. NFB is getting extremely popular and used as a stand-alone therapy or in combination to wean-off pharmacological agents that tend to produce undesirable side-effects. One form of NFB is electromagnetic therapy.
Some of the recent, modern electromagnetic techniques are TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and PEMF (Pulsed Electromagnetic Field) therapy. The use of electromagnetic therapy to alleviate many conditions have been used for over hundreds of years till the end of 19th century/ start of 20th century. Interest in it was subdued in the middle period of 20th century, but now the interest has again increased, as evidenced by increase in research and clinical studies in this field.
Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric ADHD: A Review
Potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS and tDCS in pediatric ADHD. Also discusses the safety of using these tools in the pediatric population.
Transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of neuropsychological deficits
This meta-analysis supports a beneficial effect of tDCS on inhibitory control and WM (Working Memory) in ADHD. TDCS seems to be a promising method for improving neuropsychological and cognitive deficits in ADHD.
TMS equipment is costly, needs a clinical set-up and treats with current in the range of 1-2 Tesla. On the other hand, PEMF cost in tremendously less, can be performed anywhere and anytime and the current used is in the range of 100-200 micro-tesla, significantly lower than TMS. This has led to popularity and preference for PEMF therapy, which is also used for other conditions like insomnia (sleep disturbance), anxiety, depression, stress, PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) and meditation. The beneficial effects of PEMF are increasingly growing and gaining popularity because of ease of use and simplicity of the apparatus.
Can PEMF Therapy Reduce Symptoms of ADHD?
With so many benefits from PEMF therapy, it is surprising that more doctors aren’t using this to help their patients. PEMF therapy has helped thousands to feel better and improve their quality of life.
Frustrated to the Core: ADHD/ADD
If you are an adult with ADHD or a parent of a child with this condition, please take into consideration the following "alternative" option that could give you back your POWER!
USE OF BELLABEE PEMF THERAPY FOR ADHD/ ADD
You can select “Concentrate” or “Create Therapy” modes to use preconfigured or customizable therapy for ADHD/ADD on Bellabee software. This software can be used with any android or IOS device.
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»It always seems impossible until it is done.« (Nelson Mandela)