Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders.
AIMS:To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups.
First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84-2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71-2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings.
These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.
Source & Read More: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Association between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in childhood and schizophrenia later in adulthood.
To estimate the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood among children and adolescents with ADHD compared to the background population.
SUBJECTS/MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Two hundred and eight youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of schizophrenia were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of schizophrenia for cases with ADHD, compared to the normal population, was calculated as risk ratios. Hazard ratios (HR's) by Cox regression were calculated in the predictor analyses.
Mean age for ADHD cases at follow-up was 31.1years. Schizophrenia diagnoses were given to 3.8% of these cases. Compared to the general population, RR of schizophrenia in cases with ADHD was 4.3 (95% CI 1.9-8.57).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
This prospective follow-up study found children with ADHD to be at higher risk of later schizophrenia than controls. If replicated, these results warrant increased focus on the possible emergence symptoms of schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis during clinical follow-up of patients with ADHD.
Source & Read more: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common and fastest growing cause of dementia, accounting for an estimated 60 to 80 percent of all cases. Irreversible and progressive, AD slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks of daily living. Although treatment can help manage the symptoms of AD, there is no cure for the disease.
According to the Alzheimer’s Association, an estimated 5.3 million Americans are currently living with AD. By 2025, that number is expected to increase to more than 7 million.
Alzheimers gets affected by dying neurons, it attacks memory, obviously the temporal lobe is involved here as people forget who they are, their names, identity etc. All sit in the temporal lobe, inside the brain is the hippocampus, which is also linked to long term memory. Some people have a problem to create long term memory.There is a direct link between bad long term memory and low gamma wave activity. So if Gamma from around 40-70 Hz is helped, it should actually improve long term memory.
Neurologists and clinical psychologists facilitate neuroplasticity by using pulsed (rhythmic) sensory or electromagnetic stimulation—a group of techniques broadly referred to as neuromodulation. This edited volume describes details of rhythm-related neuromodulation techniques, and experts in the field have detailed the pros and cons of each approach, citing both clinical and scientific support.
Zapping Memories: Electrostimulation Restores Working Memory of 70 Year Olds’ to That of 20 Year Olds’
Summary: Non-invasive electrostimulation restores working memory in 70-year-olds, allowing for comparable to cognitive abilities to those of 20-year-olds. The technology increases neural synchronization patterns and information flow between frontotemporal regions of the brain. This results in rapid improvements of working memory in older people, which lasted for more than 50 minutes post stimulation. The findings offer new hope to those suffering age-related memory impairments.
Source: Boston University
Brain stimulation techniques can modulate cognitive functions in many neuropsychiatric diseases. Pilot studies have shown promising effects of brain stimulations on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain stimulations can be categorized into non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) and invasive brain stimulation (IBS). IBS includes deep brain stimulation (DBS), and invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), whereas NIBS includes transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), cranial electrostimulation (CES), and non-invasive VNS. We reviewed the cutting-edge research on these brain stimulation techniques and discussed their therapeutic effects on AD. Both IBS and NIBS may have potential to be developed as novel treatments for AD; however, mixed findings may result from different study designs, patients selection, population, or samples sizes. Therefore, the efficacy of NIBS and IBS in AD remains uncertain, and needs to be further investigated. Moreover, more standardized study designs with larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-up are warranted for establishing a structural guide for future studies and clinical application.
Keywords: brain stimulation, Alzheimer's disease (AD), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), cranial electrostimulation (CES)
International MRI meta-analysis creates first global map of bipolar disorder.
A new landmark study—which is the largest meta-analysis of MRI brain imaging to date—has identified specific brain abnormalities in gray matter volumes of people with bipolar disorder (BD) and created the first “roadmap” of key brain regions underlying the neurobiology of BD. These findings were published May 2 online ahead of print in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
Bipolar brain imaging shows how the bipolar brain is different.
The picture below shows a significant reduction in grey matter volume.
It comes from a study of patients with bipolar disorder.
It shows grey matter shrinking prefrontal and temporal regions of the brain.
Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 100 Schizophrenia Patients to 48 Patients with Major Depression
In this retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms were to identify a surrogate biomarker for the Dopamine D2 receptors in the brain by comparing patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia taking Atypical Antipsychotics to Depressive patients medicated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. To achieve this, thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in sLORETA. Three-dimensional statistical non-paramentric maps (SnPM) for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were then computed. Our results illustrated that the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus (t=2.049, p=0.007), along the dopamine mesolimbic pathway, had higher neuronal oscillations in the delta frequency band in the 100 Schizophrenia patients as compared to the 32-depressive female patients. The comparisons with both the 48 depressive patient cohort or the sixteen male depressive patient cohort did not yield any statistically significant findings. We conclude that the Superior Frontal Gyrus should be investigated as a possible surrogate biomarker for preclinical and clinical drug discovery in neuropharmacology.
Keywords: Dopamine Receptors, Schizophrenia, sLORETA, Mesolimbic
This report provides practical information regarding the use of EEG biofeedback ("neurofeedback") for a variety of uses. It will survey some ofthe major issues, approaches and methods that are currently in use, and describe their overall benefits and limitations. This should help the user or practitioner to evaluate and select neurofeedback instruments, and to put them to use for the needs at hand.
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i.e. standard recording channels in the frontal, temporal, central, and occipital lobes; (3) Electrode montages (unipolar, bipolar); (4) Types of neurofeedback i.e. frequency, power, slow cortical potential, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and so on; (5) Clinical applications of neurofeedback i.e. treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, drug addiction, schizophrenia, learning disabilities, dyslexia and dyscalculia, autistic spectrum disorders and so on as well as other applications such as pain management, and the improvement of musical and athletic performance; and (6) Neurofeedback softwares. To date, many studies have been conducted on the neurofeedback therapy and its effectiveness on the treatment of many diseases. Neurofeedback, like other treatments, has its own pros and cons. Although it is a non-invasive procedure, its validity has been questioned in terms of conclusive scientific evidence. For example, it is expensive, time-consuming and its benefits are not long-lasting. Also, it might take months to show the desired improvements. Nevertheless, neurofeedback is known as a complementary and alternative treatment of many brain dysfunctions. However, current research does not support conclusive results about its efficacy.
Keywords: Brain diseases, Brain waves, Complementary therapies, Electroencephalography, Neurofeedback
do not knot know if you are aware, but Dementia is on the rise. Take your time and check out the links below. Not for me, for your own sake.
What can you offer to retirement associations, retirement home chains, millions of members in Dementia supprt groups, associations, alliances? There are thousands of them.
For the god sake, use Bellabee to ease symptoms and changing brain oscillations to "healthy" brain wave patterns.
Have you forgotten about neuromodulation? You can do it by your self.
Some want to continue to sleep, I can not let them ;)
However, 3,000 psychologists and more than 30,000 individual users are using Bellabee. Thank you!
The wheel has been invented already. What now?
What have you changed since then, except that you are transmitting the knowledge from 40 years ago? It seems attending conferences and talking crap is the best cure for mental health problems nowadays?